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Learn Mandarin
Learn Mandarin, the modern standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin, Chinese, means access to the Chinese mainland and Taiwan, overseas Chinese common language. "The People's Republic of China National Common Language Law" Putonghua and standard Chinese characters of "common language" (non-official language) of legal status. The common modern Chinese spoken and written communication. Mandarin Chinese based on the syntax and modern north Beijing, then voice, and as an official, teaching, media, standard language, is The People's Republic of China including Taiwan, including official language, is one of four official languages of the Republic of Singapore.
"Mandarin" is defined, the liberation of the previous decades has been unclear, there are different views. After the founding of new China, in October 1955, at the "national language reform meeting" and "Norms in Modern Chinese Academic Conference" during the Han Nationality and the official name of the official languages as "Putonghua" and also established its definition, the "voice for the standard pronunciation of Beijing, the Beijing-based dialect words." October 26, 1955, "People's Daily" entitled "to promote the Chinese reform, the promotion of Putonghua, Chinese standardization efforts to achieve" the editorial, the paper said: "Chinese national language, is based on the Beijing dialect words, voice ring clear and true in Beijing Mandarin. "February 6, 1956, the State Council issued the instructions on the promotion of Putonghua, Putonghua added the definition of a" voice for the standard pronunciation of Beijing to the Beijing dialect as the basis of dialect, to a model of modern vernacular writings of the syntax of modern Chinese national language. "This definition from the pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, three clearly defined standard of Putonghua, Mandarin makes the definition of a more scientific, more careful of. Among them, the "Mandarin" is the meaning of the words "universal" and "common" means.
Chinese Study Adviser
Mandarin is the "voice for the standard pronunciation of Beijing to the north, then the basis of dialect, to exemplary works of modern Chinese grammar specification for the" common language of modern Chinese nation. This is the text in the 1955 reform of the National Conference and the modern Chinese academic conference on regulatory issues identified. This definition substantially from the pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, put forward three standard Mandarin, so these standards to understand?
"Voice for the standard pronunciation of Beijing," referring to the voice system based on the Beijing dialect as the standard, not to Beijing, then copy all the readings of all, does not mean that Beijing dialect Mandarin. If there are still many Beijing accent, such as: the old Peking Man to the conjunction "and (he)" say "han", the "Butterfly (hudie)" say "hudiěr", to "tell (gaosu)" say " gaosong ", the accent, so that other people Dialect unacceptable. In addition, there are differences in the pronunciation of Beijing, then the phenomenon, such as "aggression" is, some people read "qīn lue", was also pronounced "qǐnlue"; "near" the word was read "fujin", has been pronounced " fǔjin ", which also gives lots of trouble in the promotion of Putonghua. Since 1956, the state of the Beijing dialect pronunciation conducted a number of ranking of, set the standard Mandarin pronunciation. Therefore, the Mandarin voice standard, the current should be published in 1985, "Chinese Different Words Forms" and the 2005 edition of "Modern Chinese Dictionary" as the standard.
The vocabulary standards, Mandarin "dialect based on the North, then", referring to Beijing by the general statement, then commonly used subject areas, while also drawing from other dialect words needed. Beijing dialect, there are many words in the soil around the Khitan language, such as Peking Man the "evening" as the "night for a long while", to "blame" as the "bared children," the "mean" as the "Koumen Er"; Beijing many areas of "corn" as "corn", the "soap" called "how to say soap", the "bread" as "Momo." Therefore, not all the vocabulary words are as Beijing Mandarin words, to have a choice. Some areas of non-Beijing dialect of foreign words have special meaning and expression of power, Beijing, then there are no corresponding synonyms, such words can be absorbed into the Mandarin vocabulary to. Such as "engaging," "spam," "embarrassing," "gimmicks" and other words have been written in the frequent, long ago joined the ranks of Mandarin vocabulary. Mandarin chosen words are generally wider and has long been popular for writing words. In recent years, the National Language Committee is organizing a human preparation of "Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary," will make further specifications Mandarin vocabulary.
The syntax of standard Mandarin is "a model of modern Chinese writings for the syntax" means the standard consists of four aspects: "model" is not ruled out a model of modern Chinese writings as syntax; "vernacular" is excluded classical; "modern vernacular "is excluded 54 before the early vernacular;" book "refers to the written form of Mandarin, it is built on the basis of spoken language, but generally speaking not equal, but processed, refined language. Since ancient times, Chinese have dialects also have a common language. According to historical records, during the Spring and Autumn era of Confucius Ya Yan tube called the common language. Ya Yan Ya Yan as the standard of Luoyang. Confucius has more than 3,000 disciples from around that time, there are dialects of ancient, local students are telling their own dialect, how can the time of Confucius lectures to students from around the world could hear understand? Because there was a common language called elegant language, so the time of Confucius in the lecture with elegant language, so communication is no barrier.