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Dialects of Chinese Pronunciation
Advanced Level 3 (What is it?)
 
中国政府规定,普通话是中国大陆境内唯一的官方语言标准发音,其它发音为地方方言。China Central Government defines, Mandarin / Putonghua is the only standard and official pronunciation of Chinese language in mainland of China. The other pronunciations are local Dialects that can not be used in public.
 
Seven Main Chinese dialects Distributing Situation Pronunciation Characteristic
北方方言
Northern Dialects
又叫官话。使用人口占汉族总人口的70%以上,分布于整个中国的北部、长江以南的四川、贵州、云南、西藏,以及下列省份沿长江的部分地区:江苏、安徽、江西、湖北、湖南。又可分为四大次方言区:华北、西北、西南、江淮。普通话的语音就是建立在北方方言中北京话的基础之上的。
Also called Mandarin. Speakers include over 70% of the Han population and live in Northern China along the Changjiang River in Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei and Hunan. Those areas can be divided into four hypo-dialect regions: Huabei, Xibei, Xinan and Jianghuai. Beijing Hua ( Beijing People Pronunciation) is one kind of Northern Dialects. The pronunciation of Putonghua / Mandarin is defined based on Beijing Hua by China Government. So generally only Beijing People can speak standard mandarin.
声调一般有四声;无浊音;有前鼻音和后鼻音;西北方言有儿话音;舌前舌后音区分较为明显。

Generally speaking, the tones include four intonations. Northern Dialects have front and back nasals, no voiced. North-western dialects have “er” sounds. Velars and dorsals differ greatly.
吴语
Wuyu
使用人口约占汉族总人口的8%,大致分布于苏南、浙江大部分地区及江西与浙江一小部分。
Speakers include about 8% of the Han and are generally distributed in most areas in Sunan and Zhejiang, and a small part in Jiangxi and Zhejiang.
有七、八个声调;韵母中单元音较多,复元音较少;没有舌后音。

Seven or eight tones. There are several simple vowels, while compound vowels are very few. No dorsal.
赣语
Ganyu
使用人口约占汉族总人口的2%强,分布于江西的北部和中部。发音特点:有六个声调;只有舌前音;有前后鼻音。
Speakers number more than 2% of the Han population. They live in the northern and central parts of Jiangxi Province.
有六个声调;只有舌前音;有【l】无【n】;有前后鼻音。

Six tones. Velar only. Has【l】and front and back nasals, but no【n】
客家话
Kakka (dialect)
使用人口占汉族总人口的4%,分布于江西南部、广东北部、福建的西部及台湾的新竹、苗栗等地。赣语和客家话很接近,有人认为可以把它们看作是同一种方言的两大支派。
Speakers are 4% of the total number of Han. It is spoken in the southern part of Jiangxi Province, northern part of Guangdong, western part of Fujian and Xinzhu, Miaosu and other areas in Taiwan. Ganyu is very similar to Kejiahua. Some believe that they can be regarded as two main branches of one dialect.
一般有六个声调;只有舌前音;还有【m】韵尾;【x】和【u】相拼时念【f】。

Six tones usually. Velar only. Has 【m】codas. When 【x】 and 【u】 come together, it pronounces【f】.
湘语 Xiangyu 一般认为包括新湘语和老湘语,使用人口占汉族总人口的5%,分布于湖南洞庭湖以南的大部分地区。It is generally believed that Xiangyu includes New Xiangyu and Old Xiangyu. Speakers amount to 5% of the Han population. They are distributed in most areas to the south of Dongting Lake in Hunan Province. 有五、六个声调;有舌前舌后音;【x】和【u】相拼时念【f】, 【n】和【l】混同。

Five or six tones. Has velars. When 【x】 and 【u】 come together, it pronounces【f】. 【n】and【l】can be used interchangeably.
闽语 Minyu 使用人口占汉族总人口4%强。分布于福建(除闽西客活区外)、广东东部和海南岛及雷州半岛一部分、台湾大部分地区、浙南与福建比邻的小部分地区。Speakers number more than 4% of the total population of the Han. They are scattered in Fujian (except the region of Minxikehua), eastern Guangdong, Hainan Island, a part of Leizhou Byland, most of Taiwan and a small area along the border of Zhenan and Fujian. 有七、八个声调;只有舌前音;没有【f】。

Seven or eight tones. Has velars; has no 【f】.
粤语Cantonese 使用人口占汉族总人口5%,分布于广东大部分地区、广西东南部。 粤语、闽语和客家活在港澳及海外亦有分布。 发音特点:声调有九、十个;无浊音;【x】和【u】相拼时念【f】。Speakers number 5% of the Han population. They live in most of Guangdong and the south-eastern part of Guangxi. Cantonese, Minyu and Kejiahua are spoken in Hongkong, Macao and outside China as well. 声调有九、十个;无浊音;【x】和【u】相拼时念【f】。

Nine or ten tones. No voiced. When 【x】 and 【u】 come together, it pronounces【f】.

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