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Chinese Pinyin
 
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Chinese Pinyin (Chinese phonetic alphabets) is the phonetic romanization Chinese People's Republic of programs, written in 1955 -1957 in the original Chinese characters when the reform and Reform Commission (now the State Language Work Committee) Committee to study the development of Chinese Phonetic Alphabet. The program is mainly used for Mandarin phonetic pronunciation of the mark, as a Mandarin Chinese phonetic symbols.
February 11, 1958 of the National People's Congress announced the approval of the program. In 1982, an international standard ISO 7098 (Chinese spelling of the Roman alphabet). Some overseas Chinese communities, such as the use of Chinese language teaching in Singapore in Chinese Pinyin. September 2008, China Taiwan Chinese transliteration policy areas identified by the "universal alphabet" to use "Hanyu Pinyin", involves some Chinese into English, will be required by Pinyin, started from 2009. Chinese Pinyin is a tool to assist Chinese pronunciation.
In ancient China, because there is no standard Chinese Pinyin, people in teaching vocabulary, often use two common words for tangent or straight spell the pronunciation of this vocabulary. This method is obviously too complicated and difficult pronunciation. Since ancient times there is no standard spelling program, resulting in many of the ancient Chinese pronunciation and the pronunciation is completely different now. The rise of the Chinese nation has played a baffling effect.
Who invented the Chinese phonetic alphabet then? It's interesting, is a foreigner. Most of China's ancient Chinese pronunciation by "tangent to the word" pronunciation methods, such as "East" (all the cage cut). This method is obviously too complicated and difficult pronunciation. AD 1610, a missionary in France called Jinnigelai to China, he is a China hand. In 1626 he wrote a "Ears and Eyes of the West in Confucianism," the book, the first accurately recorded with the Latin alphabet pronunciation of Chinese characters. He met in China during the Han Yun, Wang Zheng and others, and their help, Matteo Ricci and other missionaries in the western Chinese phonetic book "West word miracle", based on the preparation of the first Chinese Pinyin romanization each word exchange.
"The People's Republic of China National Common Language Law," the 18th article: "" Chinese Phonetic Alphabet "is the names, places, and Chinese literature the unity of the Roman alphabet spelling norms, and for any inconvenience or can not use character areas." Under this set of standard written symbols called Pinyin.
Chinese Pinyin is also the internationally recognized standard Mandarin Latin transliteration. International Standard ISO 7098 (Chinese Roman alphabet spelling) wrote: "The People's Republic of China National People's Congress (February 11, 1958) formally adopted by the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet, is used to spell Chinese. Transliteration in the text by those who Mandarin readings recorded pronunciation. "
Whether China's own norms and international standards are clear that the nature and status of the Chinese phonetic alphabet, that is the Latin spelling of Mandarin or the transliteration system, rather than the Chinese orthography or writing system of Chinese. Phonetic alphabet Latin alphabet used in the program only individual title, does not mean that pinyin is a phonetic system (all phonemic language).
Hanyu Pinyin in mainland China using a wide range. Chinese communities overseas, especially in Chinese communities such as the Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore, is also currently teaching Chinese language education for Chinese Pinyin.
a: Da natural lips pronounce the tongue flat, intermediate micro Long tongue, vocal cords vibrate.
o: articulation lips into a round, slightly cocked, tongue backward shrink, swell the tongue back, tongue middle, vocal cords vibrate.
e: pronounce half-open mouth, tongue by, the mouth on both sides to start to become flat, vocal cords vibrate.
i: pronunciation, the mouth slightly open into a flat, tongue and held it under the gums, tongue elevation, near the hard palate, vocal cords vibrate.
u: pronunciation, the lips rope round, protruding into the hole, the rear tongue swell, vocal cords vibrate.
ü: pronunciation, the lips into a circle, close to the closed rope, tongue and held it under the gums, tongue in front of the Department of uplift, vocal cords vibrate.
b: pronunciation, the lips closed, impeding air flow, and lips suddenly let the air out, the pronunciation of light short.
p: pronunciation, the lips closed, impeding air flow, and then suddenly open lips, air Flaring into sound.
m: pronunciation, the lips tightly closed, tongue retraction, airflow through the nose, open mouth, vocal cords vibrate.
f: pronunciation, the upper teeth touch the lower lip form a narrow slot, let the air squeezed out from the gap of the friction into the sound.
d: tip of your tongue against the upper gum, after the sudden release Biezhu air, air from the mouth forked, broke out into the sound.
t: tip of your tongue against the upper gum, breath stopped, the sudden departure, air from the mouth, Flaring.
n: tip of your tongue against the upper gum, air from the nose through, while red open tip of the obstruction, vocal cords vibrate.
l: pronunciation, the lips slightly open, tongue against the upper gum, vocal cord vibration, air flow from the tip of the tongue on both sides.
g: pronunciation, the base of the tongue up against the front of the soft palate obstruct air flow, breaking the back of the tongue for airflow obstruction, exploded into sound.
k: pronunciation, the base of the tongue front, against the upper palate to obstruct air flow, breaking the back of the tongue for airflow obstruction, burst into sound.
h: pronunciation, the base of the tongue elevation, close to the soft palate to form a narrow, air from the gap of the extrusion and friction into the sound.
j: tip of your tongue up against lower incisors, in front of the Department of the tongue close to the hard palate, air out from the slit in the friction into the sound.
q: pronunciation, the tongue front part against the hard palate, tongue base flow break through the barriers into the sound of friction.
x: tip of your tongue up against lower incisors, tongue near the hard palate in front of the Department of elevation to form a narrow, air from the gap of the extrusion and friction into the sound.
zh: tip of your tongue upward into the front and held it hard palate, with a weak air impulse opening tip of the tongue obstruction, from the gap of the extrusion and friction into the sound.
ch: tip of your tongue upward into the front and held it hard palate, there is a strong impulse to open airflow obstruction tongue, from the gap of the extrusion and friction into the sound.
sh: tip of your tongue upward into the front near the hard palate, leaving a narrow gap, air from the slit in the extrusion and friction into the sound.
r: tip of your tongue upward into the front near the hard palate, leaving a narrow, hard voice sounds, airflow from a narrow slot in the extrusion and friction into the tone, vocal cord vibration.
z: tip of your tongue up against the back door gear, impeded air flow, so that the weaker open air red tongue obstruction, from the narrow slot in the extrusion and friction into the sound.
c: tip of your tongue up against the back door gear, impeded air flow, so that a strong flow from the gap of the extrusion and friction into the sound.
s: tip of your tongue close to the tooth back door, leaving narrow, narrow in the air from the tip of the tongue extrusion, friction into the sound.
y: pronunciation, the mouth slightly open into a flat, tongue and held it under the gums, tongue elevation, near the hard palate, vocal cords vibrate.
w: pronunciation, the lips rope round, protruding into the hole, the rear tongue swell, vocal cords vibrate.
ai: pronounced when a sound start, and then slide i, uninterrupted airflow, the pronunciation of light short.
ei: pronunciation, the start e sound, and then slide i, uninterrupted airflow, mouth to the two sides.
ui: articulation, u sounds light is short, and then slide into ei, mouth shape from round to flat.
ao: pronunciation, the first made a sound, then after tongue reduction, tongue base, lift up, mouth shape rope into a circle, gently slide o.
ou: pronunciation, the start o the sound, gradually Shoulong lips, tongue elevation, I type from the great circle to the small round.
iu: pronunciation, the start i, then slide to the ou, I type from the flat to round.
ie: pronunciation, the start i, then send e, air flow is not interrupted.
üe: pronunciation, the start ü sound, and then slide to the e, I type from round to flat.
er: pronunciation, the highest in the tongue send e sound, and then rolled up tip to the palate, two letters of the same pronunciation.
an: pronunciation, the first made a sound, and then gradually raised his tongue, gums hair stand up on n sound.
en: articulation, start e sound, and then raise the tongue, the tongue against the upper gum, nasal air escape from, hair n sound.
in: pronunciation, the start i sound, and then under the incisor tip and held it back gradually to the palate, tongue, nasal air escape from, hair n sound.
un: pronunciation when u start the sound, then the tongue against the upper gum, then made n the sound, air escape from the nasal cavity.
ün: pronunciation, the start ü sound, and tongue elevation, against the upper gum, nasal air escape from, hair n sound.
ang: pronunciation, the first made a sound, and then base of the tongue against the upper soft palate, nasal air escape from, issued after the last nasal ng sound.
eng: pronunciation, the start e sound, and then held it under the gum tongue, soft palate and tongue base retraction resist ng hair tone, air escape from the nasal cavity.
ing: tip of your tongue touch under the gums, tongue swell to the hard palate, nasal resonance into the sound.
ong: pronunciation, the start o the sound, and then withstood the soft palate and tongue base retraction, tongue swell, lips rope round, nasal resonance into the sound.